We introduce a framework for online changepoint detection and simultaneous model learning which is applicable to highly parametrized models, such as deep neural networks. It is based on detecting changepoints across time by sequentially performing generalized likelihood ratio tests that require only evaluations of simple prediction score functions. This procedure makes use of checkpoints, consisting of early versions of the actual model parameters, that allow to detect distributional changes by performing predictions on future data. We define an algorithm that bounds the Type I error in the sequential testing procedure. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method in challenging continual learning applications with unknown task changepoints, and show improved performance compared to online Bayesian changepoint detection.