SuperGLUE: A Stickier Benchmark for General-Purpose Language Understanding Systems

In the last year, new models and methods for pretraining and transfer learning have driven striking performance improvements across a range of language understanding tasks. The GLUE benchmark, introduced one year ago, offers a single-number metric that summarizes progress on a diverse set of such tasks, but performance on the benchmark has recently come close to the level of non-expert humans, suggesting limited headroom for further research. This paper recaps lessons learned from the GLUE benchmark and presents SuperGLUE, a new benchmark styled after GLUE with a new set of more difficult language understanding tasks, improved resources, and a new public leaderboard. SuperGLUE will be available soon at

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